The Holy Spirit In the Bible
Christian tradition starts speaking of the Spirit by saying that the Holy Spirit is God, based on the Bible.
The Bible shows that the Holy Spirit is a person and is God :
- the Spirit's work in the Old Testament is closely identified with the Word of YHWH spoken by the prophets (this was affirmed by the early church in 2 Peter 1:21, and in the Creeds).
- the close ties between Jesus' mission and the work of the Spirit (see the work of the Holy Spirit).
- the close ties between the mission of the apostles and the work of the Spirit; esp. see 1 Peter 1:12.
- The episode with Hananiah (Ananias) in Acts 5, where first, Peter says that Hananiah lied to the Holy Spirit, then later says that he lied not to men but to God.
- The trinitarian baptismal formula found in Scripture (Matt 28:19): "in the name of the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit". It dates to the church's earliest days.
- Jesus made a habit of confronting traditions with "box-breaking" actions. He ate with tax collectors and other scorned people. He turned over the tables of the money changers in the temple. He talked to the woman at the well. He healed the occupier-centurion's daughter. The Holy Spirit does the same kind of thing in Acts, and ever since.
- In Acts 9:31, it is said that the church lived and grew not only in the fear of the Lord, but in the comfort of the Spirit.
Who Is the Holy Spirit?
The Spirit has the attributes of God, such as :
- eternal, having neither beginning nor end (Hebrews 9:14),
- omni-potent, having all power (Luke 1:35);
- omni-present, being everywhere at the same time (Psalm 139:7); and
- omni-scient, understanding all matters (1 Corinthians 2:10,11).
Not only is the Holy Spirit God, the Spirit is a full person of the Trinity. What is meant by that? (Forgive me for talking strange here, but this is about the Holy Spirit, the One that words are least able to describe.) The Spirit is an 'I', able to take action and cause action. The Spirit is able to be a 'we' with other 'I's. The Spirit can be addressed as 'you'; by other 'I's (such as you and me), and can respond as an 'I'. Thus, when we say, "Come, Holy Spirit", the Spirit can come, not as if on command, but as promised.
In a 1997 Barna survey, 61% of surveyed US residents agreed with the statement that the Holy Spirit is "a symbol of God's presence or power, but is not a living entity". A majority or near-majority of those in almost every Christian denominational family saw it that way, including mainline Protestants and evangelical Christians. It was most commonly held that way by non-whites and young people. It's a view with ancient roots. There were differences early on which the Church's thinkers probed and prodded and discussed at length. Back in the days of the early church, some held that the Holy Spirit was an 'emanation' of God the Father. Others thought of the Divine Wind in the same terms as the Talmudic discussions on the divine Shekinah (Presence), as an expression of what Christians call the 'Father'. Those views are not far off, but they're just describing part of a larger picture. It's like speaking of an elephant by describing its ears without reference to its trunk, tusks, or thick legs.
The Holy Spirit As a Person
The Holy Spirit isn't a mere symbol of anything. No mere symbol is able to:
- communicate ('speak') (Acts 13:2),
- intercede (step in on behalf of someone) (Romans 8:26),
- testify (John 15:26)
- guide (John 16:13),
- command (Acts 16:6,7),
- appoint (Acts 20:28),
- lead (Romans 8:14),
- reveal to someone how wrong, foolish, or sinful he/she was (John 16:8).
- seal God's promise in believers' hearts (Ephesians 1:13-14).
- live within a believing Christian (1 Corinthians 6:19).
- shape the life of each person and community to Christ's (Romans 8:1-17)
In the Bible, the Spirit has intellect, passions, and will, and can be grieved. In short, the Holy Spirit has a personality. The Spirit reflects the will and the thoughts of the Father, and brings them to us in many ways, most central of which is the Holy Scriptures.
Thus, the proper question is not "What is the Holy Spirit?" but "Who is the Holy Spirit?". Yet the Spirit doesn't always act so personal in a given situation, and that may be the Spirit's choice. Thus, the Spirit can be depicted in non-personal ways, such as wind and fire, and indeed Scripture itself does so. More importantly, it matters little how you ask the question and much more that you ask, for so much hinges on the asking. God already knows what you meant.
As God, the Holy Spirit can act in whatever manner the Spirit wants to act. The Spirit generally acts through the church, but doesn't have to; the Wind blows where it will. The Divine Wind is free not to always be seriously focused on those purposes; the Inspirer can have fun while at work.
Thus, to say it again, amidst all the haze and disguise: who is the Holy Spirit? The Holy Spirit is a Person. The Holy Spirit is God. The Holy Spirit is at work in the world we live in, and within and/or on ourselves. In different ways, with different potency, with different effect, at different times, but most definitely here and at work.
No Mere Force
This is all stuff that can't be true of a mere (or even 'The') Force. That is how we often experience God's Breath and know of the Spirit's presence, but that is not what the Spirit is. As God, the Holy Spirit is cause, and that cause has effect. Yet, there are some who reduce the vibrant Unseen Spirit of God to:
- a force,
- a collective will,
- the sum of all spirits,
- a living memory of the gathered believers,
- the force of emotion or conscience within a person.
Those people, fine folks as they may be, are describing a different spirit than the Holy Spirit known by the Christian faith. The Holy Wind works in ways that seem like each of these ways and more, yet against all of them at times. The Holy Presence works in whatever ways are needed to do what needs to be done, except in choosing not to take forceable control of people's actions. The Spirit is at work leading each and all of us toward Christ, whether from inside or from outside. Thus, we must not be quick or harsh when correcting each other, lest we get in the Spirit's way.
Grieving the Spirit
We can cause the Holy Spirit grief. The main way to do that is malice, which shows itself though bitterness, rage, anger, clamor (making lots of noise and disruption), and slander. In malice, one acts with the purpose of doing harm. Paul follows this description by what makes for a happy Holy Spirit: forgiving others as, in Christ, God forgave you.
The Holy Spirit In the Old Testament
The Spirit shows up in the Old Testament (OT), especially in the prophets' books. But not quite as Christians would envision.
- The OT does not use Heb. nephesh (soul of earthly beings) to describe God. It uses Heb. ruach.
- ruach isn't treated as mediator between God and humans. The Holy Spirit is God at work, not a go-between. The word ruach means a movement of air (wind, breath)
- There are 'general' references to the Spirit of God, including several on the lips of a non-believer. When that happens, the term may have been used to mean 'divine spirit', a recognition that a god (whomever the god is) is at work, and some sort of power or authority beyond the usual is rather obviously causing things to happen.
- The Messiah is said by Isaiah to be specially endowed with God's spirit: Isaiah 11:2; 42:1; 61:1.
- The Spirit is seen as God's presence in the hearts of each believer: Psalm 51:11; Psalm 139:7.
- The Spirit sustains life (Psalm 104:29-30)
- In Ezekiel (37:9) and Isaiah (34:16; 48:16; 63:10), there is a hint of personality, more so than in the rest of the Hebrew Scriptures.
In the main OT Jewish way of looking at it, the Divine Breath was a life force or energy of God, the operational side of what a Christian would term "the Father", rather than a Person in the Trinitarian sense. A psalmist speaks of God's 'Spirit' acting in a personal way (Psalm 143:10), but the use of 'spirit' there is probably another way to say 'God' (Hebrew poetry uses many ways to say the same or similar things). Isaiah and Ezekiel give hints toward envisioning the person-ness of the Spirit, but it is not until the writings between the testaments that this vision takes on a clearer shape, and not until Christ that it is given its full dimension.